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Wendy’s to Take 'Chemistry Textbook' Out of Ingredient List

Wendy’s to Take 'Chemistry Textbook' Out of Ingredient List

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What's inside this pretzel bun bacon cheeseburger? We may soon be able to understand the ingredient list a lot better at Wendy's.

Fast food chains are coming under fire recently for transparency when it comes to what kinds of chemicals go into popular chain restaurant’s menu items.

At the recent RBC Capital Markets Consumer and Retail Conference in Boston, Wendy’s CEO Emil Brolick’s recently stated that they want to “get to the point where nothing on our labels looks like it came from a chemistry book."

This may be related to the recent backlash that Wendy’s, Subway, and other fast food chains received after it was found that their bread products contain a chemical found in yoga mats, which The Daily Meal recently reported.

When The Daily Meal requested for more elaboration on this statement, a Wendy’s representative denied that it was a pledge of any sort.

“We do have a long-term initiative in this area,” said Bob Bertini, a representative from Wendy’s. “Work is underway by our food innovation team, which we aren’t ready to discuss. It’s premature to elaborate on our specific plans or product ingredients that may be involved.”

Brolick’s comment refers to the so-called “clean label trend,” which is, according to Food Business News, “the trend of simplifying ingredient lists that has challenged many food and beverage manufacturers to reduce the number of ingredients in many products.”

This means that long ingredient lists with chemical names like azodicarbonamide (the yoga mat chemical), are out, and recognizable ingredients are in.

Joanna Fantozzi is an Associate Editor with The Daily Meal. Follow her on Twitter @JoannaFantozzi.

CHE 105/110 - Introduction to Chemistry - Textbook

Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Introductory Chemistry


Wendy’s to Take 'Chemistry Textbook' Out of Ingredient List - Recipes

Can I get Wendy’s delivered to me?

Yes. You can have your favorite Wendy’s* menu items delivered to you when you order breakfast, lunch or dinner with the Wendy's app (or via our website), or with any of our delivery partners.

*Participating locations only.

How do I find out which Wendy’s restaurants are participating in delivery?

Just download the Wendy's app, and enter your delivery address - or - enter your address into your favorite delivery app and search for Wendy's.

Via technological magic, you’ll see all participating Wendy’s locations near you.

Will I earn Rewards points for delivery orders?

If you place the delivery order through the Wendy’s app or website you will — minus any taxes, fees, and tips, of course.

Pro-tip: You can apply rewards and/or mobile offers to delivery orders placed through the Wendy’s app or website, too! You just don’t get Rewards points on the amount discounted.

BTW, if you order Wendy’s through DoorDash or Grubhub, Postmates, Uber Eats, or any other third-party delivery service, you don’t earn points. As of now, anyway. That could change in the future, though.

Can I order coffee or hot tea delivery?

Hot tea. Hot coffee. Order either with Wendy's delivery, and you’ll be drinking your beverage in a hot minute.

Can I order a Frosty ® for delivery?

Yes, you can order a Frosty with Wendy's delivery. Chocolate? Vanilla? It's up to you.

Are there any Wendy’s menu items not available for delivery?

Well, that depends. Depending on your location, some items available at your local Wendy’s might not be available for delivery. Double-check your location’s menu to see if your favorite item is available for delivery.

Is there a fee to deliver my Wendy’s order?

Sometimes. When you order Wendy’s via a delivery app, you pay for the price of your food* and any local taxes, a delivery fee, a service fee, and an optional tip for your delivery person. Occasionally we offer delivery promotions with our partners in which a delivery fee may be waived.

Use your favorite delivery app to see what the price of delivery would be in your area.

*Prices may be higher than in restaurant.

Can I use a Wendy’s gift card to pay for my delivery order?

No, Wendy's gift cards can not be used to pay for delivery orders.

How fast can I expect to get my food delivered?

Average delivery time is 30-40 minutes, but delivery times may vary depending on driver availability.

How do I report a problem with my Wendy’s order?

You can contact Wendy's customer care a few different ways. We are available for live support from 8am to 12am EST, every day of the week. You can Live Chat or Leave us a Message all within the app. As always, you can Text or Call us at 888-624-8140, or email us at [email protected]

You can contact also our delivery partners directly:


We are available for live support from 8am to 12am EST, every day of the week.
You can Live Chat or Leave us a Message all within the app. As always, you can Text or Call us at 888-624-8140.

Context for Use

I found this lesson in the book: Teaching Science with Favorite Picture Books by Ann Flagg, Mary Orv and Teri Ory. The picture book being read is "Pancakes, Pancakes!" by Eric Carle
1. Introduce the word pancake as a compound word. Discuss how the two words make up the meaning.
2. Ask who likes light and fluffy or flat and rubbery pancakes. Talk about how adding different ingredients can change the final product.
3. Read the story: have the students listen for ingredients that go into Jack's pancakes.
4. Make the two batches of pancakes so students can observe and taste the difference between the two recipes. (Both with and without the chemical reaction)
5. Have two charts up one for Jack's pancakes and one for the science pancakes. Divide each into three sections: "batter," "cooking," and "cooked."
6. As Jack's pancakes are being made have students describe the mixture in its three stages. Record their observations on the charts. Have students sample ¼ of a pancake.
7. Do the same with the science pancake recipe.
8. Have the students compare the two recipes and identify any ingredients that are in one recipe and not the other. (Focus more on the type of ingredient and not the amount of the ingredient.)
9. Discuss that the vinegar and baking soda produced a chemical reaction that caused the bubbles thus making the pancakes light and fluffy.
· Book: Pancakes, Pancakes! By Eric Carle
· Chart paper
· Pancake ingredients (check recipes below)
· 2 mixing bowels
· Mixing spoon
· Electric skillet
· Cooking spray
· Spatula

Jack's Pancakes
1 cup flour
pinch of salt
3 tablespoons sugar
1 cup milk
1 egg
¼ cup butter (softened)

Combine the dry ingredients in a large bowl. Place the wet ingredients in another bowl and mix well. Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients and mix. Pour pancake batter in a hot greased skillet ( a few spoonfuls for each pancake) and cook over medium heat. Flip pancakes when bubbles form around the edges.

Science Pancakes
2 cups flour
pinch of salt
3 tablespoons sugar
1 teaspoon baking soda
2 eggs
¼ cup vinegar
1 ¾ cups milk
¼ cup butter (softened)

Combine the dry ingredients in a large bowl. Place the wet ingredients in another bowl and mix well. Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients and mix. Pour pancake batter in a hot greased skillet ( a few spoonfuls for each pancake) and cook over medium heat. Flip pancakes when bubbles form around the edges.

6 Cosmetic Chemicals Added to Fast Food

1. Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate

Found in shampoo and soap, as well as in the bread products at all fast food joints.

Reasoning for use in fast food: ‘dough conditioner’ even though bread does not require this, and has been made without SSL for thousands of years.

2. Calcium Disodium EDTA

Found in skin products and hair conditioner (used as stabilizer), and in Taco Bell’s bacon ranch sauce, Arby’s light Italian dressing and Burger King’s tartar sauce.

Reasoning for use in fast food: flavour protectant in fast food sauces, dips and dressings

3. Ammonium Glycyrrhizin

Found in facial mask products, and in Burger King’s “breakfast syrup”

Reasoning for use in fast food: flavour enhancer and flavouring agent

4. Disodium Phosphate

Found in mascara and mouthwash, and in Wendy’s chili, chedar cheese sauce, and Frosty desserts. Also found in Taco Bell’s Southwest Chicken.

Reasoning for use in fast food: food preservative

5. Propylene Glycol

Found in shampoo, mouthwash, and hand sanitizers, as well as in Burger King’s pickles, smokey cheese sauce, and BK stacker sauce.

Reasoning for use in fast food: gives most of today’s food and beverages their distinctive taste

6. Benzoyl Peroxide

Found as an active ingredient in acne creams, and in all the bread products you find in fast food joints.

Reasoning for use: bleaching wheat flour white (all fast food breads)

The Science of Baking: What Do Your Ingredients Do?

One of the questions we’re asked most often, and think about ourselves when posting recipes and advice, is why certain ingredients are included in baking recipes and what is their purpose. For example, whenever you look up a baking recipe, you’ll be confronted with the common list of ingredients including flour, eggs, butter, and sugar. Buy a cookbook and you’ll always find these at the front. They’re your baking essentials, without them you have no cakes, cookies, or anything else.

Let’s get scientific what do these ingredients really do?

Why is Sugar Important?

Any parents who love to bake will be conscious of how much sugar they’re putting into their recipes, especially if they’ve had a bad experience in the past of having their kids crawling the walls after eating a piece of cake. However, sugar plays a role for far more than sweetening reasons.

Without sugar, flour proteins can join in the baking process and make gluten. This is why you’ll often find many gluten free foods that have a higher than normal sugar content. This same factor is why you can usually find ingredients labelled as “low fat” but with high sugar content. When there’s sugar in a recipe, the flour joins with this rather than itself.

As for the sweetening that sugar brings, this is as a result of the sugar caramelizing. To get really scientific, certain sugars are better at absorbing moisture than others, which is why biscuits made with brown sugar stay softer and moister than those made with white sugar, for example.

What do Butter and Eggs Do?

We’ll cover eggs first, as you have probably found yourself asking why certain recipes require egg yolks, while others will specify egg whites, while others simply say to use the eggs as whole.

  • Egg whites are a drying agent check out a meringue recipe to see how important egg whites are and the difference they make.
  • Egg yolks help to give a mixture a rich, creamy texture.

These properties are why you should be careful when using “ready-made” cake mixture or egg substitutes it is actually very difficult to replicate the properties of eggs! Try making a delicious custard with an egg substitute, and you’ll see what we mean!

Butter is the ingredient that does the most multi-tasking in baking it carries and holds flavors, makes recipes feel lighter by holding air bubbles within the mixture, and tenderize the finished product as it covers proteins in the flour. Butter is always better than margarine, so use it all the time unless a specific recipe calls for the latter.

Why is Salt Important?

Salt is very important in the science of baking and does so much more than just contributing to the flavor. Salt helps preserve the color and flavor of flour. It also strengthens the gluten protein in dough and is necessary for bread, as it controls the fermentation rate of yeast. Did you know that without salt, holes with form in your bread? The bread rises faster and air pockets enlarge where the gluten has broken. Bread made without salt will taste bland. Salt also indirectly contributes to crust coloring. Without salt, the yeast quickly consumes the available sugars, and the crust on the baked bread is pale and dull.

Baking Soda vs. Baking Powder

While baking soda and baking powder are leavening agents they are used in different situations. They are added to produce carbon dioxide so baked goods will rise. Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate while baking powder includes cream of tartar (an acidifying agent), and starch (a drying agent). Which is used will depend on the other ingredients.

It is important that when you use only pure baking soda, you bake your goods immediately because a chemical reaction (bubbles) occurs and they will expand upon baking. Wait too long and your goods will be flat. Recipes that call for only baking soda will have some kind of acidic ingredient such as honey, chocolate or yogurt.

Baking powder on the other hand has a built in acidic ingredient. As long as you are using a double-acting powder, your mixture can sit a while before baking and be fine because they react in two phases and the gas won’t be released until baked.

Note that you can substitute baking powder for baking soda in a slightly higher amount the the recipe calls for, but you can not substitute baking soda for baking powder.

Do I Really Need to Measure Flour?

We’re moving from a science to a math lesson here! Where many bakers go wrong is by assuming that the volumes featured in recipes are there as a rough guide, and not as a “must follow.” But baking is a science, and certain ingredients need an exact measurement.

Admittedly, you can get away with a little too much flavoring, for example, but when you start messing around with measures of certain ingredients such as flour, sugar, eggs, baking soda or salt, and you may be asking for trouble. Flour is usually the biggest problem, as it can be thrown into recipes lumpy and is often crudely added without the necessary care and consideration.

Ensure you spoon flour gently into your measuring cup to get the exact amount of flour you need any other method could end in disaster!

Getting the wrong volume of flour in your recipe can lead to the texture of your baked goods being all wrong, and because it will affect the baking time, you could also find yourself with a burnt or undercooked final product. As you won’t have made allowances for the other ingredients to be in proportion with the flour, you will either end up with a complete mess, or start adding more ingredients to try and counteract this, and might end up having to throw everything away and starting again!

Even if you’re not scientific, understanding the science of baking will help you to create the best possible recipes and ensure you don’t mindlessly substitute ingredients thinking it doesn’t matter. Have fun putting your new scientific knowledge to the test!

This article was written in conjuction with Robert Gray of Bradford’s Bakers, and independent bakers and confectioners based in Glasgow, Scotland.

Wendy's chili is a low-calorie meal

Wendy's Chili s pretty good when it comes to calories. At 160 calories per small serving and 250 per large, this dish rates well when compared to most food you can find at fast food joints (including those "healthy" salads that come with a healthy dollop of dressing to go with those good-for-you greens).

Healthline says that an average woman should consume about 2,000 calories a day to maintain her weight and 1,500 calories per day to lose one pound per week. If you're a man, you get to eat a bit more: 2,500 calories per day, and 2,000 calories to lose that extra pound or two. Wendy's chili barely puts a dent into that daily calorie count. And that salad? Wendy's Southwest Avocado Chicken Salad comes in a 610 calories, even more calories than a Wendy's single with cheese.

Knowing that you're making a healthier choice — and one that won't destroy your diet plan — makes Wendy's chili taste even better than that greasy burger you may have been considering.

Shortened Cakes

These cakes are based on a combination of fat and sugar, combined by creaming. The sugar crystals create tiny holes in the shortening, which will be filled with carbon dioxide and steam when the cake is baked. This is called aerating the fat. Flour and eggs provide structure with proteins and starches, which coagulate in heat, setting the structure in tiny bubbles around the CO2 and steam. This is the basic method for making traditional shortened cakes:

  • Cream together the butter or other fat and sugar.
  • Add eggs and liquid flavorings beat well.
  • Sift flour with leavening ingredients, salt, and dry flavorings.
  • Alternately add the flour and liquid to the fat/sugar/egg mixture, making sure the ingredients are combined before adding the next ingredient. The dry ingredients are usually divided into fourths the liquid into thirds. So if a cake calls for 2 cups of flour and 1 cup of liquid, you would add 1/4 cup of flour, then beat the mixture so the flour disappears. Then add 1/3 cup of liquid, and beat the mixture until the liquid disappears. Continue in this matter, making sure you begin and end with dry ingredients.

Usage [ edit | edit source ]

1. Make a Custom Recipe [ edit | edit source ]

  1. Craft a Note. When the UI asks for a title and contents for the note, just select CANCEL or press Esc . You may also wish to use a Mindwipe Tonic to max out your Crafting Skill to get the best possible result for the recipe.
  2. Ensure you have plenty of the ingredients on hand. Some might spoil while you set up the recipe.
  3. Place the Note into a Cooking Pot. The central part of the UI displays a new option: MAKE RECIPE . Select this and a new window displays.
  4. Select whether to create a drink or a dish - the icons at the top right next to the CREATE RECIPE heading.
  5. Select which icon to use for the recipe by using the arrow keys under the picture. There are 3 food icons and two drink icons to choose from.
  6. Customize the colorization of the icon. The numbers are for the different regions, and there is a standard palette of colors to use for each region. Any region can be set to any RGB value you like using the sliders provided.
  7. Type the recipe name, and a description. These appear in the tooltip when mousing over the finished items.
  8. Add the ingredients to the recipe from your inventory. Currently, the menu does not allow hotkey transfer of items, so they must be moved by dragging and dropping, or by left-clicking an item to move one of them, or shift+clicking them to move half of the stack.
    • Only eight stacks of ingredients can be in a single recipe.
    • Drugs and premade Dishes can not be used in a recipe.
    • If eggs are used in the recipe, the recipe is specific to that type of egg.
  9. Select MAKE RECIPE at the very bottom of the window to finalize the recipe, and the new recipe is placed into your inventory. The Cooking Pot does not update its contents at this stage to update it, close its inventory and reopen it.

2. Using the Custom Recipe [ edit | edit source ]

Place the finished recipe into a Cooking Pot or Industrial Cooker with the required ingredients and light the fire to begin the cooking process. The speed at which the dish is created is directly related to the Crafting Skill used to create the recipe that is higher Crafting Skills create dishes faster.

All drinks require a Waterskin with at least 25% water however, foods do not require water, unlike any Rockwell Recipes or kibble.

Chemistry Lab Materials

"Bargain Books" are brand new items that have minor physical blemishes due to shipping or handling that do not affect the use of the item. All Bargain Books are sold as is and all sales are final (no returns, exchanges or cancellations). Bargain books will remain in shopping cart for up to 12 hours and will then be removed if order is not completed. Orders consisting of regular and Bargain items can be purchased by credit card or PayPal and are shipped together (with two packing slips).

This item is a digital download file and is not a printed or physical product. Upon completion of checkout, you will receive an email with a link for you to download the file and save to your local device. Please note that ebooks and other digital media downloads are not returnable and all sales are final.

Product Description:

Includes mass scale, red and blue litmus paper, Celsius thermometer, 6 test tubes, plastic funnel, alcohol burner with stand, 250 ml beaker, 100 ml beaker, watch glass, 2 dropper pipettes, stirring rod, 50 ml graduated cylinder, filter paper, test tube cleaning brush, 50 mL plastic graduated cylinder and safety goggles.

Secondary Description:


Apologia is a name you have long trusted for quality science curriculum, and this new edition of Exploring Creation with Chemistry makes chemistry approachable and doable in a homeschool setting. Now authored by Kristy Plourde, you will notice a few changes from previous editions.

The chapter order has been changed from the previous editions (1st and 2nd) of the curriculum. There are still 16 modules measurement, units, and the scientific method, atoms and molecules, atomic structure, molecular structure, polyatomic ions and molecular geometry, changes in matter and chemical reactions, describing chemical reactions, stoichiometry, acid-base chemistry, chemistry of solutions, gas phase, energy/heat and temperature, thermodynamics, kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and reduction-oxidation reactions. The front of the book offers a suggestion on how to use the book and the length of time typically spent to complete the course. "On Your Own" questions are found throughout the modules and are to be completed as the student reads the text answers are included at the end of the module. "Review Question" and "Practice Problems" are found at the end of each module to help students recall and apply important concepts presented in that module. The text is generous with examples, illustrations, and photos for clarity of concepts.

Some helpful resources are found at the back of the text glossary, tables/laws/equations, extra practice problems for each module, and a complete list of lab supplies.

Experiments are homeschool-friendly and can be completed using the lab kit (#008778) that is assembled by Natures Workshop and items that are easily accessible. If you want to do more advanced experiments, you can purchase the MicroChem Lab Kit (#020028). These experiments arent printed in the student text, but are mentioned and marked by a flask and test tube symbol along with where that experiment can be found in the MicroChem Manual. The experiments in this 3rd edition are a combination of some new ones and the tried-and-true from the previous editions. If you dont want or need to purchase the lab kit (#008778), the required items to complete experiments are a 1 mass scale (0 to 500 grams), blue and red litmus paper, 1 thermometer (-10 to 110 degrees C). If you have these three items, the text makes suggestions within the experiments for household substitutions of the other items needed.

A special website is available to accompany this course, offering web links and additional information for specific concepts. The web address is printed in the front of the text with instructions for access.

Quarterly tests and one test for each module are included in the test booklet and are perforated for easy removal. The test booklet can be purchased separately or with the solutions manual. The solutions manual includes answers to the review questions, practice problems, extra practice problems and all tests.

The Student Notebook is a handy companion to the course. It provides formatted pages on which to write the answers to the text questions On Your Own, Study Guide Questions, Practice Problems, and Extra Practice Problems. Experiment instructions are in the student notebook along with space for recording observations and data and making notes. There is also space for recording the optional MicroChem experiments. A suggested schedule will keep the student on track to finish the course. This notebook isnt included in the bundle, but is sold separately.

For economy purposes and ease of shopping, a bundle can be purchased that includes the textbook, tests, and solutions manual (CHM3ST). Algebra 1 is a prerequisite to doing this course and is important for solving and understanding chemical equations. If using Exploring Creation with Chemistry in a co-op setting, this new 3rd edition will not work with the older editions. Changes are significant enough that students will all need the same edition.

Written specifically for use in a homeschool environment, these biblically-centered courses take a lot of pressure off the parent teaching the course. The main component of each course is the textbook. Please note that as of summer 2020, most textbooks have switched from hardcover to paperback. The student text includes all the student reading, instructions for labs, "On Your Own" exercises, and fifteen to twenty "Study Guide" questions at the end of each chapter. Unlike many upper-level science texts, we have found these to be extremely readable! The text has a conversational tone, and concepts are explained in an easy-to-understand way. Plenty of helpful diagrams and pictures are included which add interest and break up the text. Answers to the "On Your Own" exercises are also included with discussion at the end of each chapter. The labs are designed to be done easily, and most require only household items to complete unlike high school courses, like Bob Jones which require investing in some lab equipment and chemicals to complete the labs. Where a microscope or dissecting materials are required, a reasonably-priced complete kit of materials is available, for ease in collecting the items.

The Solution Manual contains test questions for each chapter, answers to the test questions and solutions to the "Study Guide" questions. For some courses, a separate Perforated Tests booklet is available please note that this is only necessary if you want an extra copy of the test questions.

The recently-published Student Notebooks are a user-friendly companion that provides space for answering the On Your Own and Study Guide questions as well as for developing Lab Reports. Study helps include graphic organizers and a Module Summary for each module (fill-in-the-blank). Digging Deeper sections provide opportunity for practical applications and writing activities. For the teacher there are grading rubrics for lab reports and suggested answers for some of the graphic organizers. The History of Science module includes a nicely done timeline. Grading rubrics for the lab reports are provided in the Appendix.

Most of the courses are available on Complete Course CD-ROMs. These 2-disc sets include all of the information found in the print version of the course along with additional multimedia animations, videos, narrations, and pronunciation guides. Tests can be viewed on-screen and printed out, but are not interactive. The teacher has access to password-protected answers which they can use for manual grading. Although the program does not require access to the internet, Internet Explorer is used as the interface.

Companion CD-ROMs are also available for each Apologia textbook. Not to be confused with the CD-ROM Complete Course, these CD-ROMs offer only the multimedia features that cannot be included in a print textbook. Features include videos of experiments, close-ups of a variety of organisms, identification of different components on 3-D models, and pronunciations of words with which students are probably unfamiliar. This one would be our preference, as our family finds it easier to read a book than to read for an extended period on the computer monitor. System requirements for all CD-ROMS: Windows 98, ME, NT, 2000, XP, Vista, Windows 7, 8, and 10 (not supported for Mac operating systems).

MP3 Audio CDs are also available for most courses. The audio files are in MP3 format, and will require an MP3-compatible CD player to use (these can also be run on most computers). Tests, study guides, and answers are not included - this is simply an audio version of the text.

Apologia also offers Video Instruction for Biology, Chemistry, Marine Biology and Advanced Biology. Currently some are in DVD format and some have transitioned to USB flash drive. Sherri Seligson, author and scientist, is your host and takes you to interesting locations, incorporating animated diagrams (over 20 hours of instruction) to help students better understand the concepts being taught. The content is more of a summary of the textual information found in each section of the modules than a narration of the text. Students will either see Sherri Seligson on location or in a lab during the speaking portions or they will see animated illustrations and examples. Sherri takes students through each lab and talks about what needs to be done and the results of the experiments.

System requirements for USB drives: USB port (PC or Mac), media player capable of playing mp4 files, and an internet browser. DVD requirements: DVD drive on your computer (PC or MAC) capable of playing mp4 files these are not compatible with a DVD player.

Apologia Science courses are written from a Biblical worldview with the homeschool in mind. At the elementary level, courses follow a Charlotte Mason-inspired methodology, with lessons organized around narration, notebooking exercises and hands-on activities or projects. Children at different ages can use these together, learning at their own level. Each course is designed to be teacher-student interactive, so teacher involvement is fairly high at this level. At the junior high and high school levels, science courses are more traditional in nature, with the textbook written to the student. Teacher involvement time at this level is much less than at the elementary level. Textbooks contain student reading, lab instructions, "On Your Own" questions and Study Guide questions. A Solutions Manual provides the answers to these and the test questions. Lab kits are available separately for both the elementary and upper-level science courses which include most of the harder to find items you will need.

Items listed in this section tend to be complete science programs with a teacher and student component, requiring few supplements besides science supplies.